Indexing metadata. How to cite item. Finding References. Email this article Login required. Email the author Login required. The image of the Prophet Muhammad in the context of understanding Islam in Japan in the first half of the 20th century. Abstract The article is devoted to the analysis of the different variations of the image of the Prophet Muhammad and the elucidation of the features and understanding Islam in Japan in the first half of the 20th century. Islam is considered in the context of the religious, political and cultural environment.
This religion makes attempts to synthesize Muslim teaching with Japanese religious traditions. On the other hand, Islam was applied for the development of pan-Asian ideology. The study of the perception of this religion in Japan will help understand the nature of the phenomenon that played a significant role in the development of the country at the turn of the century. As a result of the research have been established the features of the historical perception of Muhammad as a hero and the religious interpretation of the prophet as the founder and leader of Islam.
Also, in this research have been found that the main feature of Islam is the tendency to syncretize various religious traditions - Shinto, Buddhism, and Confucianism with Muslim teaching. The article is showing how this understanding of Islam in Japan was formed and what factors influenced its development. Full Text: PDF. Furthermore, it was the last major exposition until , also held in Osaka. A total of 14 foreign countries participated, including countries located in North-America and South-East Asia.
It was unique for the industrial exhibition, as this was the first time other nations joined. An example is the United States, which showed the development of their automobile industry.
There was thus a clear distinction between Japan and the rest of the world. Indigenous cultures were represented, resulting in a small conflict. The Chinese were depicted here as. Two examples, not given by Daykin, are Canada and the Dutch-Indies who both created a guide to the economy of the countries for their participation. See also The Dominion of Canada — The fifth national exhibition of Japan, Osaka, Canada and Netherlands-India at the fifth national industrial exhibition of Japan, held in the city of Osaka in 36th year of Meiji Kobe Their title and introduction briefly mention the fair.
As the island was under the control of Japan after the First Sino-Japanese War, it received its own hall at the fair.
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However, as European and North-American countries saw Japan as part of Asia, it raised the question whether or not it could reach the same degree of civilization as the West. This example, however, is more diffuse. The island, nowadays known as Hokkaido, became officially part of the Japanese empire in The relationship between the Ainu and Japanese was diffuse, as there already existed trade and a former area under control, since the 17 th-century, by the ethnically Japanese or wajin.
At this time, the Ainu were known as Ezo, meaning barbarian in Japanese. Lee, eds.
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This idea was represented at some fairs, although the focus on barbarians was still prominent. The customs and houses were depicted as traditional and barbarian, highlighting the role for the Japanese to lead them. Both show the importance of colonial forces and the process of othering at the Industrial Exhibition, but neglect the participation of the Western countries. The whole fair was 34 hectares, excluding the World's Natives Building as it was officially not a part of the exposition.
In particular, the automobile industry of the United States amazed. The role of Japan in seems to be the opposite. An important source for seeing the exhibition through another perspective than merely imperialistic is the guide published by the Japanese Welcome Society. An element which is important here, but neglected by literature, is the relationship of Japan with nature, symbolized in by the traditional Japanese garden. In the booklet, there are many depictions, including gardens, cherry trees or Sakura, fishermen riding boats peacefully in Gifu and houses in the mountainous region of Hakone.
Hudson, Ann-Elise Lewallen and Mark. Watson, eds. As shown by Rydell, the Ainu were also presented as primitive in the United States, mainly at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in See also Jon B. States, which exhibited automobiles during the fair. Here, no hint of a balance between man and nature is present. Regarding the Asian peoples represented in the World's Natives Building, they were portrayed as only nature. Thus, here, Japan would form the balance, a harmony between progress and nature. The four case studies highlight elements regarding the creation of a Japanese identity.
The exhibitions constructed it through comparison.
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At the Weltausstellung, this was with Western countries, classifying Japanese culture as traditional, highlighting crafts and art, following the European concept. Furthermore, a religious connotation can be found here through among others the Shinto temple and Buddha of Kamakura-model. It differs with the Fifth Industrial Exhibition thirty years later, where Japan depicted itself as between Asia and the West regarding colonial hierarchy. The difference can be explained through the rapid industrialization of Japan, enabling it to defeat China in and Russia in the RussoJapanese War A similar characteristic that was present at both fairs was nature.
In the case of the imperial museums, it is clear that an identity was created based upon a constructed past and the role of the emperor in the Japanese society.
Classifying items as heritage was an important tool. Here, the Tokyo Imperial Museum played a key role. Mentioned examples are the Horyuji Treasures, the Jimmu Mausoleum, and agricultural artifacts. In the Imperial Kyoto Museum, the focus was on the history of the city in relation to the country and the emperor.
Interestingly, the religious connotation is highly visible in the imperial museums and the Weltausstellung. We thus have to disagree with the quote of Okakura Kakuzo, given a the beginning of the chapter, stating that Japan is a museum of Asiatic civilization. This as Japan had museums and exhibitions, but differentiated itself from Asia. The central question of this thesis was: to what extent did museums in Japan and exhibitions which the Meiji government organized or participated in, promote the construction of a national identity? This question has been researched in a number of ways.
First, through a discussion of theories on nationalism, museums, and a conceptual discussion of exhibitions. Second, the discourse of these institutions in Japan has been discussed and lastly, case studies of two museums in Japan and two fairs, one that the Meiji government participated in and the other organized, have been analyzed.
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As argued in the first chapter, in which the theories of Anderson and Hobsbawm were central, museums can establish a cultural identity through the construction of a past. This past is immemorial, meaning that it portrays itself as being forever and therefore legitimizing itself. As Cannadine and Fujitani showed, the aspect of pageantry is of importance.
Finally, in the case of exhibitions, the aspect of identity through comparison was shown to be of importance. In the second chapter, the role of Japanese who went abroad was proved to be essential for the establishment of a discussion on museums and exhibitions in Japan. In the works of Fukuzawa Yukichi and the account of the Iwakura mission, it was clear that in the early Meiji period, museums were connected to the notion of knowledge.
For Fukuzawa, this was limited to nature. For Machida Hisanari, this was much broader, also including aesthetics. Okakura Kakuzo, representative of the late Meiji period, influenced the discussion through the focus on art, as a means to portray an Asiatic civilization and present the Japanese identity. In the final chapter, the four case studies, namely the Weltausstellung of , the Fifth National Industrial Exhibition in Osaka in and the two imperial museums located in Tokyo and Kyoto, were discussed.
The notions put forward in the first chapter, namely the construction of a past, pageantry and comparison, returned in the case studies. The discourse of the second chapter returns as well, which was most clear regarding the museums. In the TIM and IKM, the past was constructed through classification of items as heritage, in which the museum in Tokyo played a prominent factor.
Examples are the Horyuji Treasures and agricultural artifacts. Furthermore, with the wedding of Prince Yoshihito in , art held a more central place in the museum. Similar developments occur in the IKM, where the focus was on the history of the city to the rest of the country.